Teaching Standard B: Delivers Effective Instruction Narrative
Delivering effective instruction is crucial to student learning and performance. Throughout my student teaching experience, I was able to successfully complete “Teaching Standard B: Delivers Effective Instruction”, in the following ways.

First and foremost, I began each lesson by communicating the learning objectives for the class and going over my expectations. My expectations remained high throughout the entirety of my student teaching practicum, and I felt that students were able to achieve these benchmarks. I found that stating the learning objectives prior to the start of the lesson helped students to remain focused and engaged. In addition, instructions were provided verbally and in a written fashion - I managed to speak slowly and clearly, and would always ask the students if the directions were clear prior to the start of the activity.

I also employed a variety of content-based and content-oriented teaching techniques to enhance my instruction. To begin each lesson, I would engage in a series of brainstorming activities to help students stimulate their thinking. I would ask guided questions to begin the discussion and follow up with more critical thinking type questions to encourage higher levels of learning. Graphic organizers, visually appealing anchor charts, learning manipulatives, and the use of technology were also largely incorporated into my instruction. I found that such resources like graphic organizes and manipulatives helped students to organize their thoughts. I also found that modeling my instruction helped to make my teaching more clear. Modeling allowed me to engage my students by demonstrating enthusiasm, ask questions periodically, and pause to check for student understanding. These teaching practices enabled me to present the content in an organized and appealing fashion.

Another teaching technique that I utilized to meet the standard was through differentiating my instruction to meet the needs of ALL my students, including those on IEP’s, 504’s, and English Language Learners. Group work was a large part of my teaching, as I found it helped me to group students with like learning abilities. In addition, I would also have students participate in a variety of kinesthetic activities to help further understanding. During this time, I would also consistently walk around the classroom, informally assessing students through casual conversation. This type of assessment would provide me with a real-time look into who was grasping the material and who wasn’t.

Lastly, a key component to delivering effective instruction was my ability to remain positive. I found that by remaining positive, through my remarks and feedback, students were motivated to produce their best work. My positivity along with many other teaching practices helped me to effectively complete Standard B: Delivers Effective Instruction. Please see below for the final version of the Standard B section.

*Please see the Appendix, as well as the final PPA version below for links to artifacts that align with Standard B.

Standard B – Delivers Effective Instruction
1. Communicates high standards and expectations when beginning the lesson.
a) Makes learning objectives clear to students.
  • Begins each lesson by stating lesson goals, student expectations, and teacher expectations.
  • Reminds students’ of the Ohrenberger School motto: Work hard, show respect, and be responsible.
  • Objectives for lesson are presented in written form and verbally spoken.
b) Communicates clearly in writing and speaking.
  • Prompts and instruction are delivered in written and verbal form.
c) Uses engaging ways to begin a new unit of study or lesson.
  • Introduces lesson with information that is relevant, age appropriate, and engaging to students.
  • Utilizes technology, such as “BrainPop” or “School House Rock” videos to introduce instruction.
  • Constructs visually stimulating anchor chart to introduce concept.
d) Builds on students’ prior knowledge and experience.
  • Takes advantage of connections that arise during instruction/discussion to reinforce concepts.
  • Engage students in brainstorming activities to build on content and knowledge previously learned.
2. Communicates high standards and expectations when carrying out the lesson.
a) Uses a balanced approach to teaching skills and concepts of elementary reading and writing.
  • Incorporates reading and writing skills into all subjects.
  • Requires students to explain mathematical reasoning through writing responses.
  • Incorporates various types of instruction/activities for reading (read aloud, guided reading, independent reading, small group activities).
  • Homework in the form of written responses, illustrations, letters, etc.
b) Employs a variety of content-based and content-oriented teaching techniques from more teacher-directed strategies such as direct instruction, practice, and Socratic dialogue, to less teacher-directed approaches such as discussion, problem solving, cooperative learning, and research projects (among others).
  • Consistently scaffolds and models instruction for students, especially during ELA and mathematics instruction.
  • Lessons consist of various teaching techniques: teacher-led lectures, modeling, guided practice, etc.
  • Manipulatives and aids incorporated into every lesson: anchor charts, hands-on activities, laminated worksheets.
  • Utilizes various participation techniques: call sticks, random selection, turn and talks, small group and whole class discussions, pre-determined partner activities.
c) Demonstrates an adequate knowledge of and approach to the academic content of lessons. (See license-specific questions in Guidelines, pp. 13-44)
  • Creates lessons to address common core standards. Researches prior to delivering lesson to ensure that teacher has a comprehensive understanding of the academic content being presented.
  • Shows a deep understanding of content across disciplines (i.e. is able to show how to addition and multiplication strategies can be used to solve problems that contain fractions)
d) Employs a variety of reading and writing strategies for addressing learning objectives.
  • Incorporates differentiated assessments into all subject areas (i.e. at the end of each lesson, students are to list two things that they learned by way of written explanation, visual illustration, or verbal explanation).
e) Uses questioning to stimulate thinking and encourages all students to respond.
  • During mini-lesson, guided questions are pre-determined to help stimulate student thinking.
  • Higher order thinking questions are asked throughout entire lesson (i.e. “why might the author include this statement?” or “what can we infer from xyz”, etc.)
  • Students provided with ample amount of time to respond. If students’ need help, they may defer to a friend.
f) Uses instructional technology appropriately.
  • Utilizes technology for instructional purposes when appropriate (internet, over-head projector, DVD).
g) Employs appropriate sheltered English or subject matter strategies for English learners.
  • Uses consistent vocabulary throughout entire instruction.
  • Vocabulary charts include: vocabulary word, definition, part of speech, and example sentence.
  • Pre-selects difficult vocabulary words found within MCAS practice passage and/or other reading curriculum text to review with whole class prior to lesson.
  • Students keep mathematics journal of math related vocabulary terms and definitions.
3. Communicates high standards and expectations when extending and completing the lesson.

a) Assigns homework or practice that furthers student learning and checks it.
  • Creates homework that relates to the content learned that day or to pre-assess knowledge for upcoming topic of study.
  • Homework is checked by way of check plus, check, or check minus. Comments are included when necessary.
  • Homework is collected, recorded, and handed back to students within a timely manner.
b) Provides regular and frequent feedback to students on their progress.
  • Actively holds student conferences to assess academic progress.
  • Daily informal assessments are given by way of walking around the classroom - feedback is provided immediately.
c) Provides many and varied opportunities for students to achieve competence.
  • Both informal and formal assessments are used to measure student progress.
  • Creates and delivers formal assessments that provide multiple mediums for students to demonstrate understanding (i.e. by way of written response, multiple choice options, matching, illustrations, oral responses, and projects).
4. Communicates high standards and expectations when evaluating student learning.
a) Accurately measures student achievement of, and progress toward, the learning objectives with a variety of formal and informal assessments, and uses results to plan further instruction.
  • Uses informal and formal assessments to target students who need additional instruction.
  • Makes adjustments to pacing, content, delivery of instruction based upon data collected.
  • For ELA instruction, graphs student answers and tailors instruction to go over the question most students got wrong.
b) Translates evaluations of student work into records that accurately convey the level of student achievement to students, parents or guardians, and school personnel.
  • Student work (informal and formal assessments, daily worksheets, and other classwork) kept in student folders and can be shown to parent or guardian during parent/teacher meetings and/or student support meetings.
  • Formal assessments required to be signed by guardian.
  • Notes written home to guardian in student agenda if necessary.